Email Lists

Email Delivery Explained!

Email Delivery Explained!

Sending and receiving email is similar to traditional mail.

mailboxTo send a letter through the mail it requires a “to” and “from” address. The “to” address directs the letter to its destination, and the “from” address can be used in case the mail is returned. In the digital world, a mail exchanger (MX) server can be used to send and receive email.

The MX server has specialized software for distributing mail. To determine the destination of the email, the mail delivery agent (MDA) reads the header and determines if the email should remain on its own server or send over the internet to a remote server. The MDA takes the place of the postal worker, in this case, it looks at the “to” and “from” addresses and determines if it can be delivered locally or placed on a truck and sent across state lines

To accomplish this, the MDA uses two specifications, the address record (A Record) and the mail exchange record (MX) record. The A record takes the domain of the host and translates it into an IP address that an email can be sent to. The mail exchange record includes the hostname for the domain as well as a code that prioritizes the email. The lower the code number the higher the priority. Incoming emails are routed through the IP address as assigned in the A record.

An example of these records is below.

A Record:                                                                            MX Record:


Host Name: Mail




Mail exchange:




So, how do these internal records affect your emails being sent? Let’s look at a specific example, you are mailing your welcome letter to your new member, his email address is The mail delivery agent looks at the domain, in this case, it is and compares it to the A record. The A record converts the domain into an IP address where the email will be sent. Next, the MX record is used to redirect the email to the mail host and tells the host what priority the email is. The email is then sent using these guidelines and reaches its destination where it is opened.

It’s as simple as that and requires no stamp.

For more information on how email travels check out our blog:

From goal setting to trip planning how does your email list travel?

Do you need a mailing list? Well do you?

Do you need a mailing list? Well do you?

Do you need a mailing list? By Mary Schultz

Well do you?  You’re probably on a mailing list in one form or another, do you receive updates from your local Movie Theater, coupons in email, information about the lasts sale at the local computer store?  Then you’re on a mailing list.

The mailing list itself is simply a list of email addresses that you have accumulated with permission: allowing you to send the same information to everyone with a single email.  Now mailings list management can get complicate, when you add segments, triggered, transactional and sequential messaging and we offer tools to use these.

There are three recognized types of email mailing lists:email list

  • Announcement lists
  • Newsletters
  • Discussion lists.

And why would you use any of these?  Well to

  • Remind people of who you are and what you do
  • Upsell your merchandise after a customer purchases an item from your online store.
  • Get information out about an upcoming sale.
  • Tell your employees about the big changes coming soon
  • Share information about new medical procedures or trials.
  • Your Family needs/wants to share documents and photos that you just don’t want seen on Facebook
  • Discuss the major events, you plan without having to work around everyone’s schedule for a meeting
  • Your Alumni group is too big for your regular email account.
  • Your Technical group needs to discuss information and a place where they can go back to check previous conversations archives.
  • To coordinate with other leaders in different states where meeting in person is not an option.

Many people need to send out information, what’s the best way to do this… with a list. Regardless of who you are or what type of business you may have sending out reliable information on a timely manner is the best way to communicate to friends, family or customers.

Having customer opt into your mailing list so you can send them updates about sales or upsell them that purse to match the shoes they just bought is just a couple ways to use a list for retail purposes. Working on a big project that needs coordination across multi states to bring engineers input along with contractor’s designs and blueprints together in one place where you can go back and search previous conversations and documents is just another reason to have a list.

There are endless reasons to have a list and the creativity of how you send it is up to you, start sending today!

Which Email Service Provider Can Really Provide?

Which Email Service Provider Can Really Provide?

Does your Email Service Provider (ESP) have supporting documentation for every feature of their email list program, or do they just offer a few notes on a website?

Dundee ListManager offers an extensive online user manual that covers numerous list subjects. From API guides to Web Forms creation (Profile Forms, Surveys, Referral Forms. . .) and everything in between.  Since ListManager’s inception, it allowed the user to do everything needed to create, send and track a complete email marketing campaign. In fact, our customers were using transactional emails (for example) before transactional emails, became a marketing buzzword.

ESP Service Features

As more ESP’s came in to being, our competition started to find more creative ways to use, report and send out an email.  As these “new” features became hot topics, most customers started to expect them.  ESPs that didn’t offer these said features, had to develop them or partner with a company that offered them. Features like Shopping Cart Abandonment and Purchase Tags to track buying habits soon became very popular. These features have been part of Dundee ListManager for years.

Some of our list competitors unable to program these features, partnered with companies that could. Now, with third-party integration, ESPs can offer everything under the marketing sun.  However, most integration performance relies on all parts working correctly.  If an ESP doesn’t have A/B testing built in their program, they hook up with a company that does. Sometimes these features come at an additional cost.

Dundee’s ListMangager Features

In the case of Dundee ListManager, the A/B test feature has been part of the software for a number of years. Using the A/B wizard a user can perform as many tests as necessary to see the effect a changed variable has in each mailing.  And there is no additional cost to do so.

List Manager can integrate with other programs utilizing ListManager’s API.  In all cases, an integration with ListManager is not done to give the user additional features but done for the convenience of the user and the third party offering.  (ListManager to WordPress.)  In these instances, the users are only limited by their programmer.

And then there are the corporate “specialists” who write blogs and offer charts and surveys to help the email marketer decide which ESP they should be using.  Several of these bloggers created categories for Email Service Providers, mistakenly assuming the size of the company dictates the size of the customer (list) they can successfully handle.

For example, we are a small Corporation and comfortably handle single list sizes of 15 Million members or more.  (As many of our list owners can tell you.)  So size, company size, doesn’t matter with us.

All of our users can use:subject line

  • A/B testing, Aliases, Analytics, Archives, Autoresponders
  • Bounce Handling Reports, Bounce Management, Branding, Built-in-Reports
  • Interactive Calendar, Chart Builder, Clickthrough Heatmap, Conditional Content, Conversion Pipeline, Custom Demographics
  • Editable Regions for Templates, Automatic Error Handing
  • Forward Tracking, Setup FeedBack Loops
  • Goodbye Messages
  • Html to Text Mail Merge
  • Map Reports, Match Phrases, Member Profile Forms, Membership Expiration Dates
  • NNTP, No Mail Settings
  • Open Rates, Opted In Sign Up, Opted Out Signature Parent/Child Mailings
  • Preview Features, Profile Pages
  • Refer a Friend, Referral Forms, Run Frequency
  • Sales Cycle Map, Segmentation Management, Sequential Mailing Wizard, SOAP API, Split Test Mailings Wizard, Success % Chart, Success Tracking,  Suppression List, Surveys, Survey Form Builder
  • Template Editor, Templates,  Thank You Pages, Tracking Summary, Transactional  Emails, Triggered Clauses, Triggered Mailings
  • Segments and Events Unsubscribe
  • Vanity Domain Name, Virtual (server) Lists Hosting
  • Web Analytics Integration, Web Forms, Welcome Letter And so much more.

But all ESPs have one thing in common, and for those that don’t; what can I say? 🙁

We want customers to be successful with all aspects of email marketing.  Most of us publish some form or Email Best Practices and center Blogs around the popular concerns and topics for marketers in general, like Mobile Marketing.We tell you to use:

  1. Relevant and sometimes compelling Subject Lines.  And to avoid those words with spammy connotations. Content that is clear, with a call-to-action and may just pertain to a certain group of people: segment your list when appropriate. A consistent sender address, so the recipient recognizes you.
  2. A testing method to figure out the most effective message to send.
  3. Welcome letters
  4. An easy way to unsubscribe.

And so much more.  Most ESP probably will suite your needs, but not every ESP has the time to know you and what those needs are.  Talk to your ESP, talk to us, to find out if you’re missing a company that is small enough to know you personally but large enough to mail to the world.

Email List Hosting, Cheap & Free

Email List Hosting, Cheap & Free

You are running a top notch well know nonprofit agency, in charge of projects from fund raising to membership drives. Most if not all your work is done online, so you pick and choose the products that will give you the most bang for your buck, and believe free is even better.

You wonder if free is always better recalling the saying “you get what you pay for” as opposed to “the best things in life are free”.  You’re on a budget so you subscribe to the later and run things accordingly. For your current project you need to find a list hosting provider that offers discussion list hosting that accepts attachments and offers searchable archives. You start your search by looking for “free” and “cheap” list hosting services.

While free and next to nothing list-hosting services may work just fine, some free services are not using business class tools. These services should not always be trusted to keep the list secure, or to keep Spammers off their system, which may affect your deliverability. Some Free services are free up to a point, for example just adding one more list member will change your service from a Free List to a Fee list. The terms will  usually change too, with promises of unlimited emails (until you read the small print conditions that define unlimited).

Even prior to that, always read the terms and conditions. You may discover that your free or next to nothing list hosting service is really a “light” version of the paid offered list hosting service minus some needed features; such as Spam Filter Diagnostics or A/B split testing.

Besides, the features you may be missing, what about their support staff? Is support free, available, in country, live or just guidelines?  Do their customers answer the technical questions for customers? Can you talk to someone regardless of time zone or the Country you live in. Will they respond to your email in a timely manner or will you just receive an auto response? What about their online support and documentation. Is it current, do the links work, are there examples or tutorials if needed?

In the end paying for a list hosting service actually saves you time and money, by providing a complete set of list management tools designed just for that purpose. Features that may not be included in the free service

Features that offers you:

  1. Marketing Calendar
  2. Segment tools
  3. Advanced Message Throttling
  4. Domain Key Support
  5. Archive mailings lists with quick search
  6. TCP/IP security
  7. Automated bounce handling
  8. Suppression and/or banned lists compares
  9. Custom Branding
  10. Grievance handling
  11. One-click confirm
  12. Tiered encrypted password protectioncustomer
  13. Demographic data fields
  14. Survey’s
  15. Templates and template creation
  16. Dynamic, conditional content and advanced content scripting
  17. Easy way to create text, HTML, or multipart MIME messages.
  18. Attachments support
  19. Spam analysis
  20. Clickthrough and clickstream segmentation
  21. A/B split-testing
  22. Triggered and sequential mailings
  23. Online and Offline purchase tacking & reporting
  24. Sales Cycle & abandonment tracking
  25. Web Traffic analysis
  26. Transactional Messaging
  27. Multi-vendor Web analytics integration
  28. Graphical Deliverability reports
  29. Forward trackingSee for more.Before you decide to host on a free service remember the saying “you get what you pay for”. Your list is a valuable commodity and should be treated as such so focus on quality; using a commercial trusted list-hosting provider, like Dundee Internet List hosting  is a smart and worthwhile investment for your organization. After all your mailing list wasn’t free to compile (Consider the time, effort and expense to build it), treat it well and it will treat you well with the results you are looking for.

Have you heard? Yahoo recently changed their email acceptance policy – and it could affect you!

Have you heard? Yahoo recently changed their email acceptance policy – and it could affect you!

Yahoo recently changed their email acceptance policy to combat yahoonetwork attacks against their users from bad people using a addresses that are not sent via a server.   Yahoo’s decision to reject this class of email fixes their problem but breaks everyone else who sends legitimate email via an Email Service Provider (ESP).

Yahoo has been fighting ongoing phishing attacks for a long time.  These attacks attempt to compromise legitimate yahoo user accounts.  Once compromised the hacker can then send SPAM and phishing emails to the members of the contact list of the compromised account.  Ever receive email FROM: ( containing a link and a message that encourages you to click on it?  Just another phishing attempt.

Yahoo has control over their own computers but not others.  Even though Yahoo has curtailed SPAM and phishing emails oozing out of their servers, hackers seem to always find a way, as they figured out how to continue to send email FROM: addresses using non-Yahoo servers.

In response to the hacker community, Yahoo has sent an alert to other ISP’s, using their new DMARC policy, essentially telling other ISPs not to accept any email sending with a FROM: address unless that email originates from a Yahoo server.  So imagine what can happen if you are a list owner emailing with your favorite ESP (Email Service Provider) and using your Yahoo account for your list FROM address.  Your list of thousands of emails may be blocked,-never delivered.  Not good news for you, and, no news for your subscribers.

So what is the DMARC policy that allows Yahoo to stop the mail?

DMARC policy (Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting and Conformance) sets the technical specifications on how to implement SPF, DKIM and other verification mechanisms in a uniform way. It keeps everyone on the same page. It could be viewed as the instruction book when setting up email authentication.  Consequently,   ISP’s checking DMARC records will most likely follow Yahoo’s recommendations, in this case not to accept any email sending with a FROM: address unless that email originates from a Yahoo server

Legitimate email marketers and other email list owners will find that this action not only breaks mailing lists using a FROM: anybody@ address, but unfortunately,  interferes with emails using a Gmail, Hotmail, Comcast and other FROM addresses.

With this new policy, when a Yahoo user sends an email to a mailing list (i.e. Discussion list hosted at an ESP in this example) the list’s server distributes that message to all the list members, changing the headers which break the DMARC alignment. (“The authentication has to be from the same domain (or a sub-domain) as the address in the header-FROM: line”) Subscribers with accounts on other services, such as Hotmail, that perform a DMARC check will then fail also rejecting the original email.

What’s a Email List owner to do?

Some recommendations include complaining to Yahoo or not use a Yahoo From Address. Changing from a Yahoo From address seems to be the way to go.

Need to know more?  Contact Dunde@mail Services

Unsubscribes Happen

Unsubscribes Happen

Does your Marketing email contain the same message over and over again, sending to the same list of people, over and over again?  Most likely, your message changes, with fresh content and the right call to action, ideally the call to action will get the right response from your list subscribers.

The right response doesn’t include unsubscribing, but unsubscribes happen. You can’t stop them so why make it difficult when someone is saying “I want off you list”.

Most people will generally opt-out of permission email for the same reasons:

  1. Your Messages Lack relevance
  2. You send too often
  3. Your recipient wants to receive your newsletter at a different email address.  The only way they know how to do this is unsubscribe with their current address and opt-in with their new email address.

What is the best way to allow someone to unsubscribe?

  1. Maybe you don’t have to.  Offer a preference page as an option to unsubscribing.  If your subscriber simply wants to change their email address or reduce the frequency of your emails, make it easy for them: let them manage their account settings.
  2. Make it easy to unsubscribe.  Don’t bury your unsubscribe information in your email messages, make it prominent, easy to find.  It’s also a bad idea to hide the unsubscribe instructions in the email header – you want them to remember the good experience they had as a subscriber to your newsletter.
  3. Do not make your subscriber login to unsubscribe.  Why should they have to go through the hassle of logging in, remembering a password to get out of something they no longer want?
  4. Try to find out why they are leaving.  Make feedback an option, but not a compulsory option.
  5. After they unsubscribe email a confirmation. It’s in good form to say Thank You or Goodbye, and you will maintain your professional relationship with them.
  6. Don’t keep them guessing when their address will be removed.  Let them know when their address will be removed.  I don’t recommend waiting ten days to remove their email address; they want to leave, let them, besides, software, makes the unsubscribe automatic. So should I say don’t add them back to your list for the next 10 days.
  7. Do not require a series of clicks to opt-out of emails.  Two clicks should be the max.
  8. Test your unsubscribe link:  Make sure it works.
  9. Keep the unsubscribe landing page updated.  It may be the last time they interact with your business so you will want to have this page compatible with the rest of your website.

    Unsubscribes Happen

In summary, do not make a subscriber work to unsubscribe. You decide how this is set:  feedback, two clicks or just a link, the bottom line is just graciously let them go.

4 Quick Tips that Test the Success of your Opt-in Process

4 Quick Tips that Test the Success of your Opt-in Process

  1. Can your web visitors find your ‘subscribe to our mailing list’ offer or is that invitation unused because it’s unseen?

You know you have web traffic, customers buy items, prospects ask questions and the contact page is active, however these visitors are not signing up for your newsletter.  Why is that?  Examine your web traffic with a web analytic program for answers.


Unseen invitation to subscribe

Web analytics,  (try) such as Google Analytics, will not only show you the different entry points visitors use to land on your website pages but will show you the pages most visited.  For example, here at Dundee Internet our services and tutorial pages are our most popular ones.  Our visitors go directly to these pages from backlinks, search engines and referrals; most of the time they never visit our homepage.

What you need to consider then, is your invitation to subscribe-to your list on every page on your website or at least the most popular landing pages?

Where is this invitation located? On the top of the pages or all the way at the bottom of the pages where a visitor may never see?

2. Clarity and Consent equals Confidence in you (trust)

Have you ever filled out a request to download a whitepaper and within the signup process there is a check box that is pre-checked for you, to receive emails solicitations from them.  You have to uncheck the box or you’re on their mailing list.  Wouldn’t you rather have the option of checking the box yourself if you’re interested in joining their mailing list? And if you agree you should have that option, you also will agree that active consent, giving permission, has a trust factor that the pre-check box does not?  In the world of email best practices,  a pre-checked box  is giving permission.

Be up front and ask the customer to join your list with an action that they control,: this is the best course of action.  When they check that box and confirm their email address they become a willing opt-in, confirmed  subscriber.

 3. Do you appear to be trustworthy, relevant, and personal?

Every campaign you send has a goal: increased website traffic, more referrals to more sales.  However, most likely everyone is not interested in everything you send.  Wouldn’t it be great for both parties to have a measure of control, which would benefit both the sender and subscriber?

Control the email environment with a subscriber preference page.  As the email marketer, it stands to reason the more you know about your subscriber the more control you have: you control the content, while the ultimate relevancy of that email is controlled by the subscriber (read or trash).  Using a preference page is a win-win situation.

After someone confirms to your list, offer a preference page, as a prelude to your mailings. The preference page or member profile form in Lyris ListManager, could allow list members to see and edit what information you are using using for them: the email address, lists subscribed to, any additional demographic information, the type of format they prefer to the frequency of email sent to them.  You’re then in the position to send emails that are trustworthy, relevant, and personal

4. Do you follow-up with a hardy Welcome?

After someone subscribes to your email newsletter or announcement list acknowledge their new membership with a timely, well thought out welcome letter; to thank your new member for joining, set their future expectations by explaining the purpose of your email list and most importantly – to start a subscriber relationship with them.

In summary remember to keep your opt-in procedure easy to do, simple to follow.  Stick to  best practices.  Keep the preference page short and simple, with an open invitation for your subscribers to update it when needed, and watch your email subscriber list grow.

*It’s* never too late to share tips for Holiday Email Campaigns

*It’s* never too late to share tips for Holiday Email Campaigns

  1. Always follow “Email Best Practices”.
  2. Be cognizant of your “Sender’s Reputation”.  A sender reputation is composed of many marketing layers. It answers questions such as who are you (i.e. A well know Brand of Hot Dogs), what are you known for (i.e. Great tasting all Beef Hot Dogs) and your email delivery character. (Are you a spammer?).   A sender’s reputation is your reputation. Do not share it or slight it by using (for example) purchased lists, as they may contain Spam Traps and other reputation killers.
  3. Along with email marketing, you need to think through your Social Media and Mobile marketing strategies; how they work together, because, they too, play a big part in the marketing mix.
  4. Include a link in your mailings to a subscriber preference and profile page.  You want your subscribers to add or change their email address when necessary and it’s useful to know how often they want to hear from you.  Make it a goal to know your subscribers.  Use that knowledge to send personal triggered email, made to order just for them.
  5. Test, implement, track and engage – harness the lifecycle of email using simple strategies to deliver the right message at the right time.
  6. Warmly welcome your new subscribers; never overlook the opportunity to start building a positive relationship.
  7. Use Subject lines that matter.
  8. With email marketing, build your own brand awareness and support a more earnest relationship with your email subscribers coupled with facebook, pininterst and blogs.
  9. Do a creative audit of your current email templates.  Are your customers having a positive experience with your messages?
  10. Evaluate triggered messaging.

Revel with extended multi-channel deals.  Continue to grow your mailing lists for future promotions and branding campaigns with all the available marketing channels; your web site to phone-in mail orders.  Traditional sales, such as in store live retail, may not be able to glean as much information about a current customer.  During and after the holiday’s target those with email only specials, print out coupons and free shipping.

Plan your after the Holidays email campaigning now, it’s a New Year and so much potential.


Be A Marketing Star

Be a marketing star, with Dundee Internet email list services.

Tis the Month before Email

Tis the Month before Email

Tis the month before Christmas, and in every house,


@ Christmas Marketing Time

There’s e-buying, e-carding with a click of their mouse.
The email marketers have prepared their holiday mails,
Anticipating click-throughs that translate into sales.

There’s been meetings, planning, and things, no telling,
With the ROI pressure level raised to make this season oh so compelling.
“We need more help and expertise they cried with a tear”,
An email guru from Dundee Internet winst did appear.

The email marketers then seeing the light,
Could expect great things to happen after this night.
Dundee Internet proved by experienced in years,
with the power of Lyris ListManager ™,put their email in high gear.

With segments and triggers for each mailing day,
Proper subject lines and following best email practices, what could you say.
The all-knowing guru assured them telling,
you’re all opted in, not spammers, your sales will be swelling.

With no less than technical magic and a solid email reputation,
The marketers were poised in expectation.
With Dundee’s fast reliable delivery, the emails then came,
Raining in sales and calling out fame.

“Now, Coupons! Now, Announcements! Now, Mobile and Text!
On, opens! On referrals! On, sales and increased ROI, that comes next!

From the top of the list, to the top of the wall!

“Now Mail away! Mail away! Mail away all”!

Sent was the email the mailboxes abound, reports showed opens, sales all around.

With tidings of Christmas and holiday cheer, we wish you good holidays and a great upcoming Marketing year.

List Fatigue: An Email List that has gone Stale

List Fatigue: An Email List that has gone Stale

Email marketing is not rocket science but to some it is a science just the same.  You may make one change in your mailings and as expected (Or not) your overall results change.  If you’re working with numbers and formulas and testing with list segments, you might just come up with a mailing routine that, one day elicits soaring conversion rates, higher than you ever expected AND your facebook© “likes” double with your Internet sales hitting new numbers.  Exciting for you-Exciting for your company.  You might think, if only we can get these results more often, and conclude, maybe I should mail more often, so you do.

When you send email marketing campaigns more often, and get good results its encouragement to send again and again, usually between shorter intervals, until finally your list goes over the “just right point”  and reaches the exhaustion point, the point between under mailing an over mailing.  When you reach the exhaustion point, your conversation rates start going downhill and your members become non-responsive.  You now have a condition known as List Fatigue.

List Fatigue is the state of an email list that has gone stale.  It produces less and less returns from mailings because the list members received either too many offers or the same offers, in a short space of time. Essentially your members become disinterested, inactive, and disengaged.

List fatigue can be diagnosed with symptoms such as:

  • Subscriber lethargy.
  • Decrease interest: drop in refer- a- friend, clickthoroughs and opens.
  • Big drop in conversion rate.
  • Decline in facebook© activity.

List fatigue has some know causes:

  • Sending the same message to the same list – you find yourself hoping for different results.
  • Your messages are not important; they lack substance.
  • Mailing to an outdated, overused list.
  • The subscriber no longer fits their profile.
  • The list member only signed up for specific information: i.e. Christmas Sale

With List Fatigue, you may not notice a steady decline in membership, other than the normal churn, because members suffering from List Fatigue may not actually have unsubscribed, they only stopped interacting with your mailings.  Various studies indicate fatigued list members opt to delete your emails, or filter you right into their SPAM or Junk folder with the attitude, “why wouldn’t you just go away”.

This is not the type of message you want to convey.  You want list members who want your email. Therefore, if you find yourself dealing with a seemly fatigued list, it may be beneficial to determine the percentage of subscribers in the fatigue category compared to your entire list, creating workable components.

This is easy to do, especially if your ISP supplies good reporting tools.  For example you could select a time frame, say 6 months, look at the inactive list members (those who have zilch activity: such as no opens) and compare that number to your entire list of members.   The results may surprise you.   A fatigued list can have as high as 50% of inactive members, subscribers who remain your list members but are not interested in your messages.  Consider why someone opens your email and then think of reasons why they will not.

It could be your messages are:

  • Filtered as junk in the subscribers email client.
  • Being Blocked.
  • Saved to be read later, but later never comes.
  • Not read because the subscriber is not motivated by your Subject  Lines.
  • Long message that take too much time to read in a busy day.
  • Lost in the volume of mail received
  • (Again) sent to often, same old, same old.

How to cure List Fatigue:

As previously mentioned in earlier blogs, keep the content interesting and relevant, using segmentation and triggered email, make good use of the Subject Line and work on re-engagement.

More importantly continue to activity seek to add new subscribers (with all the acceptable Opted in methods) and re-energize the old list members with re-engagement tactics.

In conclusion, do not fall into the trap believing that List Fatigue happens to someone else – it could happen to you.  If you notice declining open rates don’t be so quick to blame spam filters and deactivated images; combat this issue by regularly adding new (opted in subscribers) and re-energizing old ones.  Your list is merely getting tired.  Make one of your goals an established target list growth rate while decreasing the proportion of inactive subscribers.